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13          <META name="Author" content="Andrew Pollock">          <META name="Author" content="Andrew Pollock">
14          <META name="Student_Number" content="4137129">          <META name="Student_Number" content="4137129">
15          <META name="Lab_Group" content="">          <META name="Lab_Group" content="">
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66                                  </P>                                  </P>
67    
68                                  <P>                                  <P>
69                                          Similarly, the ACM breaks it's Code of Ethics down into three                                          Similarly, the ACM breaks its Code of Ethics down into three
70                                          broad categories. The first, General Moral Imperatives, could                                          broad categories. The first, General Moral Imperatives, could
71                                          equally apply to most other professions. The sections                                          equally apply to most other professions. The sections
72                                          relating to intellectual property are vaguely more                                          relating to intellectual property are vaguely more
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106                                  <P>                                  <P>
107                                          This is a significant point of all the Codes of Ethics. There                                          This is a significant point of all the Codes of Ethics. There
108                                          is little value in being a member of such a professional                                          is little value in being a member of such a professional
109                                          society if it does not encourage it's members to further                                          society if it does not encourage its members to further
110                                          themselves, as professional development is something that                                          themselves, as professional development is something that
111                                          should never cease. It is also important to note that the                                          should never cease. It is also important to note that the
112                                          Codes state that members should encourage and support each                                          Codes state that members should encourage and support each
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120                                          All of the societies Codes examined specifically refer to                                          All of the societies Codes examined specifically refer to
121                                          conducting oneself in an indiscriminate manner. The ACS                                          conducting oneself in an indiscriminate manner. The ACS
122                                          <EM>Code of Professional Conduct and Professional                                          <EM>Code of Professional Conduct and Professional
123                                          Practice</EM> states: <BLOCKQUOTE>Be objective, impartial and                                          Practice</EM> states: "Be objective, impartial and free of
124                                          free of conflicts of interest in the performance of your                                          conflicts of interest in the performance of your professional
125                                          professional duties.</BLOCKQUOTE> The ACM specifically states                                          duties" (ACS: 2003). The ACM specifically states that
126                                          that equality, tolerance and respect for others are important                                          "equality, tolerance and respect for others are important and
127                                          and that violations of this policy will not be tolerated, in                                          that violations of this policy will not be tolerated" (ACM:
128                                          their Code of Ethics. The IEEE's Code of Ethics also states                                          1992), in their Code of Ethics. The IEEE's Code of Ethics
129                                          that members agree to <BLOCKQUOTE>treat fairly all persons                                          also states that members agree to "treat fairly
130                                          regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender,                                          all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion,
131                                          disability, age or national origin.</BLOCKQUOTE>                                          gender, disability, age or national origin" (IEEE: 1990).
132                          </DD>                          </DD>
133    
134                          <DT><STRONG>Promotion of the profession</STRONG></DT>                          <DT><STRONG>Promotion of the profession</STRONG></DT>
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177                                          Professional Conduct and Professional Practice makes a                                          Professional Conduct and Professional Practice makes a
178                                          reference to "Intellectual Property", but the latter does                                          reference to "Intellectual Property", but the latter does
179                                          state that information is the property of the client, and                                          state that information is the property of the client, and
180                                          must not be distributed freely. One could argue that this                                          must not be distributed freely. One could argue that this is
181                                          covered under the section 4.7 of the ACS Code of Ethics                                          covered under the section 4.7 of the ACS Code of Ethics
182                                          (Honesty), whereby section 4.7.6 states <BLOCKQUOTE>I must                                          (Honesty), whereby section 4.7.6 states "I must give credit
183                                          give credit for work done by others where credit is                                          for work done by others where credit is
184                                          due</BLOCKQUOTE> however, it could be argued successfully                                          due" (ACS: 2003) however, it could be argued successfully
185                                          that this is not specific enough to the area of intellectual                                          that this is not specific enough to the area of intellectual
186                                          property and copyright, not prescriptive enough about when                                          property and copyright, not prescriptive enough about when
187                                          "credit is due".                                          "credit is due".
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191                          <DD>                          <DD>
192                                  <P>                                  <P>
193                                          The ACM Code of Conduct specifically mentions "trespassing                                          The ACM Code of Conduct specifically mentions "trespassing
194                                          and unauthorised use of a computer or communication system".                                          and unauthorised use of a computer or communication system"
195                                          It goes on to say that individuals have the right to restrict                                          (ACM: 1992). It goes on to say that individuals have the
196                                          access insofar as it does not discriminate unethically (as                                          right to restrict access insofar as it does not discriminate
197                                          discussed earlier).                                          unethically (as discussed earlier).
198                                  </P>                                  </P>
199                          </DD>                          </DD>
200    
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203                                  <P>                                  <P>
204                                          The ACM Code of Ethics has section 2.5 of their More Specific                                          The ACM Code of Ethics has section 2.5 of their More Specific
205                                          Professional Responsibilities, which states members must                                          Professional Responsibilities, which states members must
206                                          <BLOCKQUOTE>give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of                                          "give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of
207                                          computer systems and their impacts, including analysis of                                          computer systems and their impacts, including analysis of
208                                          possible risks</BLOCKQUOTE> and goes on to state that                                          possible risks" (ACM: 1992) and goes on to state that
209                                          computer professionals must be perceptive, thorough and                                          computer professionals must be perceptive, thorough and
210                                          objective when making evaluations, recommendations and                                          objective when making evaluations, recommendations and
211                                          presentations of system descriptions and alternatives. This                                          presentations of system descriptions and alternatives. This
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219    
220          <P>          <P>
221                  Whilst having nothing specifically to do with Information Technology,                  Whilst having nothing specifically to do with Information Technology,
222                  The ANU code on <EM>Academic Honesty in Learning and Teaching</EM> has                  the ANU code on <EM>Academic Honesty in Learning and Teaching</EM> has
223                  a some common points to those raised in the Codes of Conduct for the                  a common point with those raised in the Codes of Conduct for the
224                  various professional societies examined.                  various professional societies examined.
225          </P>          </P>
226    
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246          <H2>Case studies</H2>          <H2>Case studies</H2>
247    
248          <P>          <P>
249                  In conclusion two case studies will be discussed. The first, one is a                  In conclusion, two case studies will be discussed. The first one is a
250                  hypothetical ANU student who attained an IT degree with a lot of                  hypothetical ANU student who attained an IT degree with a lot of
251                  assistance from his/her friends, doing a lot of collaboration on                  assistance from his/her friends, doing a lot of collaboration on
252                  assignment work, and getting good marks for them, but average marks                  assignment work, and getting good marks for them, but average marks
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255          </P>          </P>
256    
257          <P>          <P>
258                  The second example is an employee working on a application project. He                  The second example is an employee working on an application project. He
259                  gets a brilliant idea outside of the scope of the existing project                  gets a brilliant idea, outside of the scope of the existing project,
260                  that he believes will make an improvement to this application, and                  that he believes will make an improvement to this application, and
261                  other related applications. The contract he has signed states that the                  other related applications. The contract he has signed states that the
262                  work carried out on the project belongs to this organisation he is                  work carried out on the project belongs to this organisation he is
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266          <H3>Case study 1: The average student who had a lot of help from his friends</H3>          <H3>Case study 1: The average student who had a lot of help from his friends</H3>
267    
268          <P>          <P>
269                  The negative consequence of this scenario is that this student has                  This situation is difficult to monitor, and can potentially cause a
270                  attained an IT degree that isn't necessarily indicative of his/her own                  lot of problems.  The negative consequence of this scenario is that
271                  abilities. This is most likely going to become evident when the                  this student has attained an IT degree that isn't necessarily
272                  employee is unable to conduct themselves competently in their field of                  indicative of his/her own abilities. This is most likely going to
273                  employment.  The possible victims of this negative scenario are both                  become evident when the employee is unable to conduct themselves
274                  the student/employee and the organisation employing him/her.                  competently in their field of employment.  The possible victims of
275                    this negative scenario are both the student/employee and the
276                    organisation employing him/her.
277          </P>          </P>
278    
279          <P>          <P>
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292                  could, in the worst case, directly impact on other peoples lives.                  could, in the worst case, directly impact on other peoples lives.
293          </P>          </P>
294    
295            <P>
296                    The other victim is the ANU, as whilst the student is seen to have
297                    exited successfully from one of its degree programs, the student's
298                    actual competency is probably lower than the employer would expect for
299                    a degree-holder. This then lowers the value of a degree in the
300                    employer's view, and gives the potential for employers to hold ANU
301                    graduates in lower regard than perhaps they should me.
302            </P>
303    
304          <H3>Case study 2: The employee with the work-related brilliant idea</H3>          <H3>Case study 2: The employee with the work-related brilliant idea</H3>
305    
306          <P>          <P>
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314                  constitute theft of the organisation's intellectual property.                  constitute theft of the organisation's intellectual property.
315          </P>          </P>
316    
317            <P>
318                    There is nothing stopping the employee from using the idea for
319                    improvement within the company he is working for, though. If the idea
320                    he has had can be applied to other projects within his organisation,
321                    then he is only being dilligent by raising the idea as an enhancement
322                    to existing processes.
323            </P>
324    
325          <H2>Bibliography</H2>          <H2>Bibliography</H2>
326    
327            <P>
328                    ACS Code of Ethics, Australian Computing Society, 2003,
329                    http://www.acs.org.au/static/national/pospaper/acs131.htm
330            </P>
331    
332            <P>
333                    ACS Code of Professional Conduct And Professional Ethics, Australian
334                    Computing Society, 2003,
335                    http://www.acs.org.au/static/national/pospaper/codeprof.htm
336            </P>
337    
338            <P>
339                    ACM Code of Ethics, Association for Computing Machinery, 1992,
340                    http://www.acm.org/serving/se/code.htm
341            </P>
342            
343            <P>
344                    IEEE Code of Ethics, Institute of Electrical and Electronic
345                    Engineers, 1990,
346                    http://www.ieee.org/portal/index.jsp?pageID=corp_level1&path=about/whatis&file=code.xml&xsl=generic.xsl
347            </P>
348    
349            <P>
350                    Academic Honesty in Learning and Teaching, The Australian National
351                    University, 2003,
352                    http://info.anu.edu.au/policies/Codes_Of_Practice/Education/Other/Academic_Honesty.asp
353            </P>
354  </BODY>  </BODY>
355    
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