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33                  of Information Technology, but may relevant to many professional                  of Information Technology, but may relevant to many professional
34                  disciplines.                  disciplines.
35          </P>          </P>
36    
37            <P>
38                    <DL>
39                            <DT><STRONG>Essential moral behavior</STRONG></DT>
40                            <DD>
41                                    The various Codes of Ethics all contain directives regarding
42                                    what one could consider basic moral behavior. Values such as
43                                    honesty, integrity, are all specifically referred to. Actions
44                                    must also be in the public or community interest, which means
45                                    that members of the various socities should take the wider
46                                    social implications of their actions into consideration.
47                            </DD>
48    
49                            <DT><STRONG>Competence</STRONG></DT>
50                            <DD>
51                                    All the Codes of Conduct and Ethics highly value competence.
52                                    This is important, as incompetent workmanship can have a poor
53                                    reflection on the profession in general, regardless of what that
54                                    profession is.
55                            </DD>
56    
57                            <DT><STRONG>Professional Development</STRONG></DT>
58                            <DD>
59                                    For the same reasons as competence, ongoing profeessional
60                                    development is of paramount importance. All the societies Codes
61                                    reviewed specifically mention ongoing personal development, as
62                                    well as assisting fellow members to further their development.
63                            </DD>
64    
65                            <DT><STRONG>Fairness, equality and objectivity</STRONG></DT>
66                            <DD>
67                                    All of the societies Codes examined specifically refer to
68                                    conducting oneself in an indiscriminate manner. The ACS <EM>Code
69                                    of Professional Conduct and Professional Practice</EM> states:
70                                    <BLOCKQUOTE>Be objective, impartial and free of conflicts of
71                                    interest in the performance of your professional
72                                    duties.</BLOCKQUOTE>
73                                    The ACM specifically states that equality, tolerance and respect
74                                    for others are important and that violations of this policy will
75                                    not be tolerated, in their Code of Ethics. The IEEE's Code of
76                                    Ethics also states that members agee <BLOCKQUOTE>to treat fairly all
77                                    persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender,
78                                    disability, age or national origin.</BLOCKQUOTE>
79                            </DD>
80                    </DL>
81            </P>
82    
83            <H2>Principles specific to Information Technology</H2>
84            <P>
85                    There are a number of other principles stated in the various Codes of
86                    Conduct that are more specific to the field of Information Technology,
87                    because of the technical nature of the profession, or because they
88                    relate to technological ethical issues.
89            </P>
90    
91            <P>
92                    <DL>
93                            <DT><STRONG>Intellectual Property</STRONG></DT>
94                            <DD>
95                                    Whilst not strictly related to Informationl Technology, this is
96                                    certainly an issue that crops up more often within this field.
97                                    The ACM Code of Ethics states that property rights including
98                                    copyrights and patents should be honoured, and proper credit
99                                    should be given for intellectual property. The IEEE Code of
100                                    Ethics states that members should credit properly the
101                                    contributions of others. Interestingly, neither the ACS Code of
102                                    Ethics or Code of Professional Conduct and Professional Practice
103                                    makes a reference to "Intellectual Property", but the latter
104                                    does state that information is the property of the client, and
105                                    must not be distributed freely.
106                            </DD>
107    
108                            <DT><STRONG>Promotion of the profession</STRONG></DT>
109                            <DD>
110                                    Again, one could substitute the name of the profession for any
111                                    other, however, the ACS Code of Ethics and Code of Professional
112                                    Conduct specifically mention promoting and protecting the image,
113                                    and professionalism of Information Technology and the society in
114                                    general.
115                            </DD>
116    
117                            <DT><STRONG>Authorised access to computing resources</STRONG></DT>
118                            <DD>
119                                    The ACM Code of Conduct specifically mentions "trespassing and
120                                    unauthorised use of a computer or communication system". It goes
121                                    on to say that individuals have the right to restrict access
122                                    insofar as it does not discriminate unethically (as discussed
123                                    earlier).
124                            </DD>
125                    </DL>
126            </P>
127    
128            <H2>Similarities to ANU code</H2>
129    
130            <P>
131                    Whilst having nothing specifically to do with Information Technology,
132                    The ANU code on <EM>Academic Honesty in Learning and Teaching</EM> has
133                    a some common points to those raised in the Codes of Conduct for
134                    the various professional societies examined.
135            </P>
136    
137            <P>
138                    The most significant common point is of course the moral value of
139                    being honest. The code of practice defines academic honesty, and also
140                    goes on to discuss originality and plargiarism. This is identical in
141                    spirit to the intellectual properties clauses of Codes of Ethics for
142                    the ACS and ACM.
143            </P>
144    
145            <P>
146                    The ANU code also defines the roles and responsibilities of various
147                    levels of academics within the University, similar to how the various
148                    socities Codes state that members should assist other members to
149                    further themselves to be better members. Similarly, University
150                    academics should guide students in matters of academic honesty.
151            </P>
152    
153            <H2>Case studies</H2>
154    
155            <P>
156                    In conclusion two case studies will be discussed. The first, one is a
157                    hypothetical ANU student who attained an IT degree with a lot of
158                    assistance from his/her friends, doing a lot of collaboration on
159                    assignment work, and getting good marks for them, but average marks
160                    for examinations. This student then attains employment somewhere in
161                    Canberra.
162            </P>
163    
164            <P>
165                    The second example is an employee working on a application project. He
166                    gets a brilliant idea outside of the scope of the existing project
167                    that he believes will make an improvement to this application, and
168                    other related applications. The contract he has signed states that the
169                    work carried out on the project belongs to this organisation he is
170                    working for.
171            </P>
172    
173            <H3>The average student who had a lot of help from his friends</H3>
174    
175            <P>
176                    The negative consequence of this scenario is that this student has
177                    attained an IT degree that isn't necessarily indicative of his/her own
178                    abilities. This is most likely going to become evident when the
179                    employee is unable to conduct themselves competently in their field of
180                    employment. The possible victims of this negative scenario are both
181                    the student/employee and the organization employing him/her.
182            </P>
183    
184            <P>
185                    Eventually it is going to come to the point where the employee has to
186                    gain sufficient competence to carry out his/her employment, or the
187                    employer has to cease employing the student, due to their
188                    incompetence. This ultimately boils down to misrepresentation, in that
189                    the student didn't accurately represent their competence to the
190                    employer in the first place.
191            </P>
192    
193            <P>
194                    The negative repercussions could be more significant depending on the
195                    nature of the employment of the student. If the student was engaged in
196                    a role that may have a direct impact on the public, this incompetence
197                    could, in the worst case, directly impact on other peoples lives.
198            </P>
199    
200            <H3>The employee with the work-related brilliant idea</H3>
201    
202            <P>
203                    In the case of the employee with the brilliant idea, if it is just an
204                    idea, the organisation he works for cannot readily claim ownership of
205                    it. If the employee develops anything on company time or resources,
206                    based on that idea, then it rightly becomes property of the
207                    organisation. If this is the case, and the employee wishes to take the
208                    idea outside of the organisation, the only ethical thing to do would
209                    be to seek permission from the employer to do so. Anything less would
210                    constitute theft of the organisation's intellectual property.
211            </P>
212  </BODY>  </BODY>
213    
214  </HTML>  </HTML>

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